Showing posts from October, 2016
One of the most powerful and murderous dictators in history, Stalin was the supreme ruler of the Soviet
Union for a quarter of a century. His regime of terror caused the death and suffering of tens of millions,
but he also oversaw the war machine that played a key role in the defeat of Nazism.
Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili was born on 18 December 1879 in Gori, Georgia, which was then part of the
Russian empire. His father was a cobbler and Stalin grew up in modest circumstances. He studied at a theological
seminary where he began to read Marxist literature. He never graduated, instead devoting his time to the
revolutionary movement against the Russian monarchy. He spent the next 15 years as an activist and on a number of
occasions was arrested and exiled to Siberia.
Stalin was not one of the decisive players in the Bolshevik seizure of power in 1917, but he soon rose through the
ranks of the party. In 1922, he was made general secretary of the Communist Party, a post not considere…
Inspiration (from the Latin inspirare, meaning "To breathe into") refers to an unconscious burst
of creativity in a literary, musical, or other artistic endeavour. The concept has origins in both Hellenism
and Hebraism. The Greeks believed that inspiration came from the muses, as well as the gods Apollo and
Dionysus. Similarly, in the Ancient Norse religions, inspiration derives from the gods, such as Odin.
Inspiration is also a divine matter in Hebrew poetics. In the Book of Amos the prophet speaks of being
overwhelmed by God's voice and compelled to speak. In Christianity, inspiration is a gift of the Holy Spirit.
In the 18th century philosopher John Locke proposed a model of the human mind in which ideas associate or
resonate with one another in the mind. In the 19th century, Romantic poets such as Coleridge and Shelley
believed that inspiration came to a poet because the poet was attuned to the (divine or mystical) "winds" and
because the soul of the poet w…
Humanity Or Human nature refers to the distinguishing characteristics, including ways of thinking, feeling and
acting, that humans tend to have naturally, i.e. independently of the influence of culture. The questions of what these
characteristics are, what causes them, and how fixed human nature is, are amongst the oldest and most
important questions in western philosophy. These questions have particularly important implications in ethics,
politics, and theology. This is partly because human nature can be regarded as both a source of norms of conduct or
ways of life, as well as presenting obstacles or constraints on living a good life. The complex implications of such
questions are also dealt with in art and literature, while the multiple branches of the Humanities together form an
important domain of inquiry into human nature, and the question of what it means to be human.
The branches of contemporary science associated with the study of human nature include anthropology, sociology,
Humour or humor is the tendency of particular cognitive experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement.
The term derives from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks, which taught that the balance of fluids in the
human body, known as humors (Latin: humor, "body fluid"), control human health and emotion.
People of all ages and cultures respond to humour. The majority of people are able to experience humour, i.e., to be
amused, to laugh or smile at something funny, and thus they are considered to have a sense of humour. The
hypothetical person lacking a sense of humour would likely find the behaviour induced by humour to be
inexplicable, strange, or even irrational. Though ultimately decided by personal taste, the extent to which a person
will find something humorous depends upon a host of variables, including geographical location, culture, maturity,
level of education, intelligence and context. For example, young children may favour slapstick, such as Punch and
Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and
sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. Although Ford did not invent the
automobile, he developed and manufactured the first automobile that many middle class Americans could afford to
buy. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry. As owner of
the Ford Motor Company, he became one of the richest and best-known people in the world. He is credited with
"Fordism": mass production of inexpensive goods coupled with high wages for workers. Ford had a global vision, with
consumerism as the key to peace. His intense commitment to systematically lowering costs resulted in many technical
and business innovations, including a franchise system that put dealerships throughout most of North America and in
major cities on six continents. Ford left most of his vast wealth to the Ford F…
Groucho Marx was born Julius Henry Marx on Oct 2 1890 in New York. He was the third of the five surviving sons of Sam
and Minnie Marx. He was the first of the brothers to start a stage career aged 15 in an act called The Leroy Trio. Other
acts followed, but none of them was a great success. Twice the other members of the act disappeared overnight and left
him penniless in places far away from home.
When his Brothers came on stage they finally has a success with the musical comedy called I'll Say She Is. It was at one of
the performances of this show that Groucho got his painted moustache. He arrived late at the theater and used
greasepaint to create a moustache. He found this so much easier than a glued-on moustache that he insisted on using this
technique from then on.
In the later year of the Brothers movie career Groucho started working on radio. He hosted several programmes and was
a guest on many shows. His biggest success was the comedy quiz show You Bet Your Life which star…
Orwell was a British journalist and author, who wrote two of the most famous novels of the 20th century
'Animal Farm' and 'Nineteen Eighty-Four'.
Orwell was born Eric Arthur Blair on 25 June 1903 in eastern India, the son of a British colonial civil servant. He was
educated in England and, after he left Eton, joined the Indian Imperial Police in Burma, then a British colony. He resigned
in 1927 and decided to become a writer. In 1928, he moved to Paris where lack of success as a writer forced him into a series
of menial jobs. He described his experiences in his first book, 'Down and Out in Paris and London', published in 1933. He took
the name George Orwell, shortly before its publication. This was followed by his first novel, 'Burmese Days', in 1934.
An anarchist in the late 1920s, by the 1930s he had begun to consider himself a socialist. In 1936, he was commissioned to
write an account of poverty among unemployed miners in northern England, which res…
George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was born in Dublin, the son of a civil servant. His education was irregular, due to
his dislike of any organized training. After working in an estate agent's office for a while he moved to London as a young
man (1876), where he established himself as a leading music and theatre critic in the eighties and nineties and became a
prominent member of the Fabian Society, for which he composed many pamphlets. He began his literary career as a
novelist; as a fervent advocate of the new theatre of Ibsen (The Quintessence of Ibsenism, 1891) he decided to write plays
in order to illustrate his criticism of the English stage. His earliest dramas were called appropriately Plays Pleasant and
Unpleasant (1898). Among these, Widower's Houses and Mrs. Warren's Profession savagely attack social hypocrisy, while
in plays such as Arms and the Man and The Man of Destiny the criticism is less fierce. Shaw's radical rationalism, his utter
disregard of conventi…
Some Funny Facts:
'Second Street' is the most common street name in the U.S.
Thirty-five percent of the people who use personal ads for dating are already married.
1/3 of Taiwanese funeral processions include a stripper.
15 percent of Americans secretly bite their toes.
23% of all photocopier faults worldwide are caused by people sitting on them and photocopying their butts.
40% of all indigestion remedies sold in the world are bought by Americans.
A broken clock is always right twice a day.
The world’s oldest piece of chewing gum is 9000 years old.
Queen Elizabeth I regarded herself as a paragon of cleanliness. She declared that she bathed once every three
months, whether she needed it or not.
A group of frogs is called an army.
Albert Einstien never wore any socks.
I was asked to name all the presidents. I thought they already had names.
-- Demitri Martin

Before I got married I had six theories about bringing up children; now I have six children and no
theories. — John Wilmo…
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky was born October 30, 1821, in Moscow's Hospital for the Poor. He was the second of
seven children born to a former army surgeon, who was murdered in 1839 when his own serfs poured vodka down his throat
until he died.
Following a boarding school education in Moscow with his older brother Mikhail, Fyodor was admitted to the Academy of
Military Engineers in St. Petersburg in 1838. He completed his studies in 1843, graduating as a lieutenant, but was quickly
convinced that he preferred a career in writing to being mired in the bureaucratic Russian military. In 1844 he published a
translation of Balzac's Eugenie Grandet, and he followed this two years later with his first original published work, Poor
Folk, a widely-acclaimed short novel championed by the influential critic Vissarion Belinsky.
On April 23, 1849, Dostoevsky was arrested with other members of the Petrashevsky circle and was sentenced to death to
work as materialist atheism. He was place…
Ernesto Che Guevara was an Argentinean-born, Cuban revolutionary leader who became a left-wing hero.
A photograph of him by Alberto Korda became an iconic image of the 20th century.
Ernesto Guevara de la Serna, known as Che Guevara, was born on 14 June 1928 in Rosario, Argentina into a middle-class
family. He studied medicine at Buenos Aires University and during this time travelled widely in South and Central America.
The widespread poverty and oppression he witnessed, fused with his interest in Marxism, convinced him that the only
solution to South and Central America's problems was armed revolution.
In 1954 he went to Mexico and the following year he met Cuban revolutionary leader Fidel Castro. Guevara joined Castro's
'26th July Movement' and played a key role in the eventual success of its guerrilla war against Cuban dictator Fulgencio
Castro overthrew Batista in 1959 and took power in Cuba. From 1959-1961, Guevara was president of the National Bank of
Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), born in Oak Park, Illinois, started his career as a writer in a newspaper office in Kansas
City at the age of seventeen. After the United States entered the First World War, he joined a volunteer ambulance unit in
the Italian army. Serving at the front, he was wounded, was decorated by the Italian Government, and spent considerable
time in hospitals. After his return to the United States, he became a reporter for Canadian and American newspapers and
was soon sent back to Europe to cover such events as the Greek Revolution.
During the twenties, Hemingway became a member of the group of expatriate Americans in Paris, which he described in his
first important work, The Sun Also Rises (1926). Equally successful was A Farewell to Arms (1929), the study of an American
ambulance officer's disillusionment in the war and his role as a deserter. Hemingway used his experiences as a reporter
during the civil war in Spain as the background for his most ambitious n…
a Dream or a Goal is a desired result a system envisions, plans and commits to achieve—a personal or organizational
desired end-point in some sort of assumed development. Many people endeavor to reach goals within a finite time
by setting deadlines.
It is roughly similar to purpose or aim, the anticipated result which guides reaction, or an end, which is an object,
either a physical object or an abstract object, that has intrinsic value.
Goal-setting ideally involves establishing specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time-targeted objectives.
Work on the goal-setting theory suggests that it can serve as an effective tool for making progress by ensuring that
participants have a clear awareness of what they must do to achieve or help achieve an objective. On a personal level,
the process of setting goals allows people to specify and then work towards their own objectives — most commonly
financial or career-based goals. Goal-setting comprises a major component of personal devel…
On April 16, 1889, Hollywood legend Charlie Chaplinwas born in London, England.
Chaplin, one of the most financially successful stars of early Hollywood, was introduced to the stage when he was
five. The son of London music hall entertainers, young Chaplin was watching a show starring his mother when her
voice cracked. He was quickly shuffled onto the stage to finish the act.
Chaplin’s father died when Chaplin was a toddler, and when his mother had a nervous breakdown Chaplin and his
older half-brother, Sydney, roamed London, where they danced on the streets and collected pennies in a hat. They
eventually went to an orphanage and joined the Eight Lancashire Lads, a children’s dance troupe. When Chaplin was
17, he developed his comedic skills with the help of Fred Karno’s company, for which his half-brother had already
become a popular comedian. Soon, Chaplin’s bowler hat, out-turned feet, mustache and walking cane became his
trademark. He joined the Keystone company and filmed Making …
Charles Dickens is much loved for his great contribution to classic English literature. He was the
quintessential Victorian author. His epic stories, vivid characters and exhaustive depiction of
contemporary life are unforgettable.
His own story is one of rags to riches. He was born in Portsmouth on 7 February 1812, to John and Elizabeth Dickens.
The good fortune of being sent to school at the age of nine was short-lived because his father, inspiration for the
character of Mr Micawber in 'David Copperfield', was imprisoned for bad debt. The entire family, apart from Charles,
were sent to Marshalsea along with their patriarch. Charles was sent to work in Warren's blacking factory and
endured appalling conditions as well as loneliness and despair. After three years he was returned to school, but the
experience was never forgotten and became fictionalised in two of his better-known novels 'David Copperfield' and
'Great Expectations'.
Like many others, he began…
Darwin was a British scientist who laid the foundations of the theory of evolution and
transformed the way we think about the natural world.
Charles Robert Darwin was born on 12 February 1809 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire into a wealthy and well-connected
family. His maternal grandfather was china manufacturer Josiah Wedgwood, while his paternal grandfather was
Erasmus Darwin, one of the leading intellectuals of 18th century England.
Darwin himself initially planned to follow a medical career, and studied at Edinburgh University but later switched
to divinity at Cambridge. In 1831, he joined a five year scientific expedition on the survey ship HMS Beagle.
At this time, most Europeans believed that the world was created by God in seven days as described in the bible. On the
voyage, Darwin read Lyell's 'Principles of Geology' which suggested that the fossils found in rocks were actually
evidence of animals that had lived many thousands or millions of years ago. Lyell's argum…
Chanakya (c. 370–283 BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher and royal advisor.
Originally a professor of economics and political science at the ancient Takshashila University, Chanakya managed the
first Maurya emperor Chandragupta's rise to power at a young age. He is widely credited for having played an important
role in the establishment of the Maurya Empire, which was the first empire in archaeologically recorded history to
rule most of the Indian subcontinent. Chanakya served as the chief advisor to both Chandragupta and his son
Chanakya is traditionally identified as Kautilya or Vishnu Gupta, who authored the ancient Indian political treatise
called Arthaśāstra. As such, he is considered as the pioneer of the field of economics and political science in India, and
his work is thought of as an important precursor to Classical Economics. Chanakya is often called the "Indian
Machiavelli", although his works predate Machiavelli's by about 1,800 years.His …
Confucius (born Kong Qiu, styled Zhong Ni) was born in the village of Zou in the country of Lu in 551 B.C., a
poor descendant of a deposed noble family. As a child, he held make-believe temple rituals; as a young adult, he quickly
earned a reputation for fairness, politeness and love of learning, and he was reputed to be quite tall. He traveled
extensively and studied at the imperial capital, Zhou, where he is said to have met and spoke with Lao Zi, the founder of
Upon his return to Lu, he gained renown as a teacher, but when he was 35, Duke Zhao of Lu led his country to war, was
routed and fled to the neighboring country of Qi; in the disorder following the battle, Confucius followed. Duke
Zhao frequently came to him for advice, but upon counsel of one of his ministers, he decided against granting land to
Confucius and gradually stopped seeking his counsel. When other nobles began plotting against Confucius' position,
Duke Zhao refused to intervene, and Confucius returned…
A business (also known as enterprise or firm) is an organization involved in the trade of goods, services, or
both to consumers. Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies, where most of them are privately owned and
administered to earn profit to increase the wealth of their owners. Businesses may also be not-for-profit or
state-owned. A business owned by multiple individuals may be referred to as a company, although that term also has a
more precise meaning.
The etymology of "business" relates to the state of being busy either as an individual or society as a whole, doing
commercially viable and profitable work. The term "business" has at least three usages, depending on the scope — the
singular usage to mean a particular organization; the generalized usage to refer to a particular market sector,
"the music business" and compound forms such as agribusiness; and the broadest meaning, which encompasses all
activity by the community of suppliers of …


Book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or other
materials, usually fastened together to hinge at one side. A single sheet within a book is called a leaf,
and each side of a leaf is called a page. A book produced in electronic format is known as an electronic
book (e-book).
Books may also refer to works of literature, or a main division of such a work. In library and information science,
a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines, journals or newspapers.
The body of all written works including books is literature. In novels and sometimes other types of books (for
example, biographies), a book may be divided into several large sections, also called books (Book 1, Book 2, Book 3,
and so on). A lover of books is usually referred to as a bibliophile or, more informally, a bookworm — an avid
reader of books.
A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookshop or bookstore. Books can also…